# Empirical Probability in Excel

Probabilities of events are stated as numbers ranging from 0 to 1. The closer the probability of a given event is to 1, the more likely it is to occur. The closer the probability of a given event is to 0, the less likely it is to occur.

## Calculate Probability

To compute the probability of an event E, denoted P(E), is:

The PROB function is Excel’s built-in formula for calculating probability. The PROB function returns the probability that values in a range are between two limits or equal to a lower limit.

The function takes three required arguments and one optional argument.

Data needs to be prepared beforehand to obtain accurate probability results.

## Calculate Probability with Lower and Upper Limits

The following dataset contains a list of test scores on a Maths test and their corresponding probabilities. Notice that all the probabilities must add up to 1; otherwise, the PROB function returns a #NUM! error.

We want to compute the probability that a certain score is between 85 and 100.

We use the following steps:

1. Select cell C10 and type in the following formula:
1. Press Enter.

The probability of the scores falling between 85 and 100 is 0.27 or 27%.

## Calculate Probability Without the Optional Upper Limit

The following dataset contains a list of test scores on a Maths test and their corresponding probabilities.

If we omit the upper limit argument, the PROB function returns the probability equal to that of the lower limit only.

## Conclusion

This tutorial looked at calculating empirical probability in Excel using the PROB function. We hope you found the information helpful.